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NAIST Research Highlights 2016

概要

 URAの業務のひとつとして、外部への発信力の強化があり、特に国際広報活動が重要な位置を占めています。その一環として、奈良先端大の先駆的な研究活動を効果的に海外に伝えるためのコミュニケーションツールとしてNAIST Research Highlights を企画しました。

 NAIST Research Highlightsでは、奈良先端大に属する情報科学研究科、バイオサイエンス研究科及び物質創成科学研究科の各研究室を代表する論文に基づいた最新トピックスを、分野外の研究者や先端科学技術に興味がある一般の読者にもわかりやすく紹介しており、異分野融合共同研究の端緒となることが期待されます。

NAIST Research Highlights 2015

情報科学Computer Science | Computing Architecture Laboratory

More tolerance, less waste
Microchip fault tolerance that consumes one-third less power may now be possible with new chip design

情報科学Computer Science | Dependable System Laboratory

Better built-in fault detection
A more effective way of testing integrated circuits can help manufacturers of digital devices improve reliability

情報科学Computer Science | Ubiquitous Computing Systems Laboratory

Tailoring workout intensity
Smartphone technology can account for physical differences between individuals during walking to optimize exercise intensity

情報科学Computer Science | Mobile Computing Laboratory

Swirl protocol cuts congestion
A system that directs traffic to circular routes in city centres reduces journey times

情報科学Computer Science | Software Engineering Laboratory

Acceptance testing accelerated
Simulation approach helps optimize the cost-effectiveness of software testing

情報科学Computer Science | Software Design and Analysis Laboratory

Method histories made easy
Two new tools make it easier for developers to browse method histories and extract important information from source codes

情報科学Computer Science | Internet Engineering Laboratory

Security vulnerabilities detected
A security analysis highlights the vulnerabilities of popular cloud management software, OpenStack

情報科学Computer Science | Internet Architecture and Systems Laboratory

Efficient data sorting for wired cars
A more efficient system for data delivery should improve the performance of mobile apps for ‘wired’ vehicles

情報科学Media Informatics | Computational Linguistics Laboratory

Better bilingual dictionaries
By combining two computational methods, NAIST researchers have enhanced the accuracy of machine-readable bilingual dictionaries

情報科学Media Informatics | Augmented Human Communication Laboratory

Segmentation makes translation twice as fast
Segmentation algorithms show promise in boosting both the speed and accuracy of simultaneous speech translation

情報科学Media Informatics | Network Systems Laboratory

Dual strategy to boost underground Wi-Fi
Combining two different signal systems promises to enable clearer Wi-Fi reception in underground commuter trains

情報科学Media Informatics | Vision and Media Computing Laboratory

Seamlessly removing objects from images
New state-of-the-art image processing methods may allow objects to be removed from still photography — and even video

情報科学Media Informatics | Interactive Media Design Laboratory

Augmented reality zoom now possible
A novel algorithm improves the registration between virtual and real images in dynamic augmented reality

情報科学Media Informatics | Optical Media Interface Laboratory

Resolving translucent 3D objects
Decoding light information with an innovative imaging technique can help robots better navigate their three-dimensional surroundings

情報科学Media Informatics | Ambient Intelligence Laboratory

Appearance plays role in social perception
Robots doing menial jobs can be perceived as more capable than disguised humans

情報科学Applied Informatics | Robotics Laboratory

Gestures and ‘interruptivity’ boost interaction
Life-like gestures and self-correction allow better communication with an android

情報科学Applied Informatics | Intelligent System Control Laboratory

Raising optical grid efficiency
Dynamic decision-making tools can improve the flow of information over ultrafast optical grid networks

情報科学Applied Informatics | Large-Scale Systems Management Laboratory

Delays undermine multihop Wi-Fi
Modelling shows that delays caused by a network-coding algorithm are a drain on the performance of multihop wireless networks

情報科学Applied Informatics | Mathematical Informatics Laboratory

Improved modelling for three-dimensional scanning
A new computational method can build accurate three-dimensional images of brain activity from near-infrared spectroscopy data

情報科学Applied Informatics | Imaging-based Computational Biomedicine Laboratory

Digital tool boosts preoperative skill base
Pooling the experience of many surgeons, an artificial intelligence tool can help novice surgeons prepare better preoperative plans

情報科学Applied Informatics | Computational Systems Biology Laboratory

Matching structure to function
A systems biology approach pairs hundreds of structurally distinct metabolite groups to their corresponding functions

バイオサイエンスPlant Biology | Intercellular Communications Laboratory

Self-recognition in pollination
Studies reveal a new way for plants to distinguish self from non-self during pollination

バイオサイエンスPlant Biology | Plant Cell Function Laboratory

Enzyme shatters cell skeleton
The process by which stress-activated enzymes destabilize a cell’s molecular scaffold could one day be directed against cancer

バイオサイエンスPlant Biology | Plant Developmental Signaling Laboratory

Key propagation protein identified
A key protein required for embryonic development and growth in plants has been uncovered

バイオサイエンスPlant Biology | Plant Metabolic Regulation Laboratory

Wood-forming genes active in mosses
Key genes for wood development are expressed in mosses, hinting at an ancient evolutionary story

バイオサイエンスPlant Biology | Plant Growth Regulation Laboratory

Surface signals control growth
The signalling processes governing plant organ growth have been found to originate within the surface layers of the plant

バイオサイエンスPlant Biology | Plant Morphological Dynamics Laboratory

Understanding how flowers and leaves form
Insights into the molecular mechanisms governing how buds develop leaves and flowers could help improve agronomy and horticulture

バイオサイエンスPlant Biology | Plant Immunity Laboratory

Understanding plant immunity, both near and far
A signaling pathway, linking local and systemic immunity in plants, could be used to create disease-resistant crops

バイオサイエンスPlant Biology | Plant Developmental Biology Laboratory

Understanding female reproductive organ formation
A deceptively simple appearance belies the complex genetic interactions that occur during the formation of Arabidopsis thaliana’s female reproductive organs

バイオサイエンスBiomedical Science | Molecular Signal Transduction Laboratory

Protein does double duty in cell migration
Doublecortin protein has two different roles in controlling how the brain develops

バイオサイエンスBiomedical Science | Functional Neuroscience Laboratory

Signals that strengthen the brain
Insights into an important signalling system for neural plasticity may enhance understanding of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia

バイオサイエンスBiomedical Science | Gene Function in Animals Laboratory

Stress response gene underlies loss of vision
A key gene protects retina cells from oxidative stress, but also causes them to age prematurely

バイオサイエンスBiomedical Science | Functional Genomics and Medicine Laboratory

Key quality control element revealed
An RNA-scanning mechanism may help cells prevent production of potentially toxic truncated proteins

バイオサイエンスBiomedical Science | Molecular and Cell Genetics Laboratory

Ribosome pause has critical role
A novel system in animal cells halts protein-synthesis to generate molecules that protect against disease

バイオサイエンスBiomedical Science | Tumor Cell Biology Laboratory

Regulator of tumour suppression found
Novel protein promotes degradation of cell cycle inhibitor p27 by facilitating its translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm

バイオサイエンスBiomedical Science | Molecular Immunobiology Laboratory

Understanding the role of a messenger
A key component of the innate immune response may improve vaccines and anti-tumour assistance

バイオサイエンスBiomedical Science | Molecular Medicine and Cell Biology Laboratory

Ion channel mutations may cause disease
Mutations in the lipid-binding domain of one ion channel subfamily promotes function and cell death linked to a variety of inherited diseases

バイオサイエンスSystems Biology | Microbial Molecular Genetics Laboratory

Repair enzyme also reboots genome copying
DNA polymerase IV enzyme involved in damage tolerance also aids in DNA synthesis

バイオサイエンスSystems Biology | Systems Microbiology Laboratory

Gene function revealed in E. coli library
A new library of thousands of bacterial strains could help scientists understand gene function in cells

バイオサイエンスSystems Biology | Cell Signaling Laboratory

Yeast enzyme regulator recognized
A highly conserved cellular pathway is triggered by the presence — and absence — of glucose in yeast

バイオサイエンスSystems Biology | Applied Stress Microbiology Laboratory

Yeasts with better stress tolerance
Copper helps yeast deal with temperature extremes, pointing to gains in fermentation and biofuels

バイオサイエンスSystems Biology | Structural Biology Laboratory

Receptor role in protection unmasked
How a plant hormone receptor helps a vital process necessary for maintaining healthy plant growth is finally understood

バイオサイエンスSystems Biology | Membrane Molecular Biology Laboratory

Protein groove aids membrane assembly
The crystal structure of a membrane protein in soil bacteria is described for the first time

バイオサイエンスSystems Biology Gene Regulation Research Laboratory

Signal loop sets vertebrae numbers
A signalling feedback loop regulates the molecular clock that controls the number of vertebrae in backbones

バイオサイエンスSystems Biology | Systems Neurobiology and Medicine Laboratory

How nerve cell axons become mobilised
A signalling pathway stimulated in the tips of growing axons triggers the generation of traction forces between an axon and its substrate

物質創成科学Core Labotarories|Quantum Materials Science Laboratory

Making simpler, cheaper organic crystals
Molecular materials could simplify the fabrication and reduce the cost of lasers

物質創成科学Core Labotarories | Surface and Materials Science Laboratory

120-fold boost in photoluminescence
Analysing and refining semiconductor surfaces dramatically increases the efficiency of luminescent devices

物質創成科学Core Labotarories | Advanced Polymer Science Laboratory

Handedness theory usurped
Right circularly polarized light does not necessarily give left-handed molecules

物質創成科学Core Labotarories | Photonic Device Science Laboratory

Implant sensor images brain activity in vivo
Image sensor implant makes it possible to record the neural activity of a living mouse as it moves

物質創成科学Core Labotarories | Information Device Science Laboratory

Improving memory using hot spots
Localized hot spots are the key to the operation of low power consumption electronic memories

物質創成科学Core Labotarories | Synthetic Organic Chemistry Laboratory

Microflow set-up boosts output
Photochemical reactions in a flow rather than a batch reactor lead to easy scaling up

物質創成科学Core Labotarories | Biomimetic Materials Science Laboratory

Hybrid skin for stable agents
Spherical vesicles formed from lipid bilayer membranes with an outer silica network show excellent morphological stability

物質創成科学Core Labotarories | Bioenergetics and Biophysics Laboratory

Enzyme’s special bonds finally revealed
High-resolution crystallography uncovers the first view of bonds important for enzyme structure and function

物質創成科学Core Labotarories | Supramolecular Science Laboratory

Growing enzyme diversity using mutations
A targeted protein mutation strategy opens the door to multifunctional artificial enzymes

物質創成科学Core Labotarories | Biocompatible Materials Science Laboratory

Anti-fouling polymers demonstrate star quality
Star-shaped polymer coatings show promise in fending off bacteria and blood clots in medical implants

物質創成科学Core Labotarories | Photonic Molecular Science Laboratory

Generating power from waste heat
Additives improve the thermoelectric efficiency of carbon nanotubes

物質創成科学Core Labotarories | Ultrafast Photonics Laboratory

Laser switchable across waveguides
Optical buffer memories may be improved with a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser that can switch light into different waveguides

物質創成科学Core Labotarories | Photofunctional Organic Chemistry Laboratory

Semiconductor sandwich solution for solar cells
Improved chemical process offers simpler route to promising organic photovoltaics

物質創成科学Core Laboratories | Organic Electronics Laboratory

Making waste heat into energy
Combining carbon nanotubes and protein molecules produces electricity from low-temperature heat sources

物質創成科学Core Labotarories | Nanostructure Magnetism Laboratory

Bringing magnetism to gold
The magnetic alignment of iron carries further into an adjacent non-magnetic gold layer than anticipated

物質創成科学Core Labotarories | Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics Laboratory

Probing exciton transitions
Electron interactions in semiconductors have been theoretically calculated using terahertz absorption spectra

物質創成科学Core Laboratories | Laser Nano-Manipulation Scinece Laboratory

Detecting forces at cellular scales
A platform for measuring nanoscale vibrations could help map the mechanics of cellular growth and development

物質創成科学Specific Research Laboratories | Green Nanosystem Laboratory

Characterizing atomic orbitals
Pulses of corkscrew-like X-rays prove useful for probing the properties of atomic orbitals

物質創成科学Specific Research Laboratories | Nanomaterials and Polymer Chemistry Laboratory

Switchable surface wettability
Switchable spin-coated surfaces hold promise for controlled drug release in medical applications





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